Summer 2014

(در فایل دانلودی نام نویسنده موجود است)

تکه هایی از متن پایان نامه به عنوان نمونه :

(ممکن است هنگام انتقال از فایل اصلی به داخل سایت بعضی متون به هم بریزد یا بعضی نمادها و اشکال درج نشود ولی در فایل دانلودی همه چیز مرتب و کامل است)

 Table of contents
Abstract. 7



1.1.       Introduction. 9

1.2. Statement of the problem.. 10

1.3. Research question. 12

1.4. Research Hypothesis. 12

1.5. Definition of Key Terms. 12

Critical thinking. 12

Farahzad‘s Model of TQA.. 13

1.6. Significance of the Study. 14

1.7. Limitations and Delimitations of the Study. 15

Delimitation. 16


Review of the Related Literature. 17

2.1 Introduction. 18

2.2 Thinking. 18

2.3Characteristics of a Critical Thinker. 19

2.4 Critical Thinking Skills. 21

2.5. Teaching Critical Thinking. 22

2.5.1. How to Teach Critical Thinking. 23 Critical Thinking and Inferences. 25 Critical Thinking about Points of View.. 25 Purpose. 26 Evidence. 26 Beliefs. 26 Conclusions and Decisions. 26 Assumption. 26

2.6. Evaluation of the Quality of Translation. 27

26.1 The History of Translation and TQA.. 30

2.6.2The Main Approaches toward TQA.. 35 Views. 35 Response Based Approaches. 35 Behaviorist Views. 35 Text and Discourse Based Approaches. 36 Functionalist Approaches: Skopos Relate Approach. 36 Literature-oriented Approaches: 36 Descriptive Translation Studies. 36 Post-Modernist and Deconstructionist Thinking. 37 Linguistically-Oriented Approaches. 37 A Functional Pragmatic Model of Translation Evaluation: 38

2.7. Different Models of Evaluating Students’ Translations. 39

27.1 Farahzad‘s Model of TQA.. 39

2.7.2. Waddington‘s Model of TQA.. 40

2.7.3 Al-Qinai‘s Model of TQA.. 43

2.7.4. Sainz’s Model of TQA.. 44

2.8. Conclusion. 45

Chapter III 47

Methodology. 47

3.1. Introduction. 48

3.2. Participants. 48

3.3 Instruments. 49

3.3.1. Instructional Material 49

3.3.2. Preliminary English Test (PET). 49

3.3.3. Pre Translation Production Test. 50

3.3.7. Post Translation Production Test. 50

3.4. Procedure. 51

3.5. Design of the Study. 54

3.6. Statistical Analysis. 54


Results and Discussion. 55

4.1. Introduction. 56

4.2. Participant Selection. 56

4.3. Discussion. 71



5.1. Introduction. 74

5.2. Conclusion. 74

5.3. Pedagogical Implications. 75

5.4 Suggestions for Further Research. 75

References. 77

References. 78

This study was conducted to investigate whether critical thinking had any significant effect on translation performance of translations students. To this end, 75 male and female English translation students at the 7th semester at BA level were chosen from Azad University, Shahr-e-Ghods branch. The participants were non-randomly selected on the basis of the scores they obtained on a pre-piloted Preliminarily English Test (PET) and a translation test before conducting the study. The division of the participants to the experimental and control groups was done randomly..Both experimental and control groups were taught using the same material


in  translation classes and they received the same amount of instruction .The only difference was some techniques of critical thinking that were  taught to the experimental group to be used in their translation. A posttest of translation was given to the participants after the treatment, and the results of the data analyses showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of their posttest performance

1.1.    Introduction
Newmark(1998)asserts: “As a means of communication, translation is used for multilingual notices, for tourist publicity; for official documents such as treaties and contracts; for reports, papers, articles, correspondence, and textbooks to convey information, advice and recommendation for every branch of knowledge”(P.7). According to Newmark(1998)“translation is rendering the meaning of a text into another language in the way that the author intended in the text”(p.5). In other words “translation consists of transferring the meaning of the source language (SL) into the receptor language” (RL) (Larson, 1984, p.3). A translator faces some difficulties during translation and may not convey the meaning of the SL to RLappropriately.AsNewmark(1988) puts it“when there is no such thing as a law of translation”(p.113), tohelpconvey the meaning from SL to RL in different  texts in different languages what should a translator do? Is it possible to find a way to lesson unpredictable difficulties during a translation?

Scriven and Paul ( 1987), indicatethatcritical thinking(CT) is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action.

Facion (2010) also believes that CT includes the following cognitive skills: interpretation, analysis, evaluation, inference, explanation, and self-regulation. So a critical thinker should have especial skills in order to make a good judgment. Critical thinkers observe carefully, rely on evidence, ask right questions, and identify problems based on reasons. These thinkers are opposite to unreflective people who are biased, jump to conclusion and delay too long in making a good decision. These definitions of CT indicate the importance of thinking especially in the production of new ideas and problem solving. . On the other hand Paul and Elder (2004) think making an inference is an essential part of comprehension. Writers can’t make all the information explicit in a text. It is relied on reader to make necessary inferences in each case.

Schafersman(1991) believes that children are not born with the power to think critically, nor do they develop this ability naturally beyond survival-level thinking. Critical thinking is a learned ability that must be taught. Most individuals never learn it. Critical thinking cannot be taught reliably to students by peers or by most parents. Trained and knowledgeable instructors are necessary to impart the proper information and skills.. Regarding the teachability of critical thinking Wright (2002) proposes three main ways for teaching critical thinking in the class, teacher modeling, classroom activities, and teaching the tools of critical thinking.Wright (2002) proposes several ways of organizing for instruction in critical thinking: teach a separate course or unit, infuse critical thinking into what we teach, or we can use a mixed approach.Wright (2002) as well

موضوعات: بدون موضوع  لینک ثابت

فرم در حال بارگذاری ...